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Sommet COP28 de Dubaï sur le climat – Principaux résultats et engagements futurs

As the world grapples with the intensifying impacts of the climate crisis, the United Arab Emirates will host a significant gathering in Dubai.

This pivotal event, COP28, marks a crucial juncture in international efforts to address global warming and its cascading effects. Drawing in a vast array of participants, including global leaders, environmental advocates, and business figures, the summit seeks to forge a path toward mitigating extreme weather events and rising sea levels that threaten communities worldwide.

However, pursuing a united front against climate change faces steep challenges. The conference unfolds against deep-seated tension between nations heavily responsible for greenhouse gas emissions and those least culpable yet most vulnerable to climate disruption. This disparity underscores the urgency for a collective strategy that bridges the gap between developed and developing countries in the fight against an escalating global threat.

Points clés à retenir

  • COP28 is a critical climate conference in Dubai to tackle global warming.
  • The summit addresses the need for global adaptation to escalating extreme weather events.
  • It exposes the divide between high-emission and vulnerable nations seeking common ground.

Understanding COP28

COP28 signifies a pivotal summit in the ongoing global environmental discourse in DubaiUnited Arab Emirates. This assembly is the latest in annual United Nations conferences, officially known as the Conference of the Parties (COP). Here, delegates from various countries gather to advance collective efforts against climate change.

The origin of these conferences traces back to a UN treaty over three decades ago, aiming to confront the then-nascent issue of global warming. Successive meetings have built upon this foundation, with a historic achievement at COP21. The Paris Agreement was ratified there, setting a target to cap global temperatures’ rise below 2 degrees Celsius and, more favourably, at 1.5 degrees.

COP28 represents both a checkpoint and a catalyst for international climate ambitions. The goal is to review progress and specify and intensify the actions required under the Paris Agreement. This involves critically assessing current strategies and potentially forging new commitments to ensure the world remains on the designated path towards a more sustainable future.

The Dispute at COP28

The yearly climate convention has sparked debate due to the role of this year’s host, the United Arab Emirates, a significant petroleum producer. The decision to appoint Sultan Al Jaber, a leading figure in the UAE’s oil sector, as the summit’s president has intensified these disputes. Critics argue that his involvement presents a conflict of interest, hindering the integrity of climate discussions.

Despite demands from over 100 US and European Parliament members for Al Jaber to resign, notable individuals have supported his leadership, noting his contribution to setting ambitious sustainability targets for the UAE.

The summit has come under scrutiny for alleged repercussions on human rights et freedom of expression, with concerns about the representation of indigenous peoples et civil society groups. The involvement of fuel lobbyist lobbyists patent has raised questions about the summit’s capacity to remain inclusive.

Activist organisations, including Amnesty International and various think tanks, have underscored the essential role of an open dialogue on environmental policy, emphasising that diverse groups’ input is crucial to achieving comprehensive and equitable climate solutions.

Prominent Participants at COP28

COP28 is set to host an array of distinguished figures from across the globe. Leaders and delegates from over 160 countries, including nations such as the UK, France, Germany, and Japan, have confirmed their participation.

The United Kingdom’s monarch, King Charles III, is expected to appear notable by delivering the opening ceremony’s keynote address. Another significant presence will be Pope Francis, marking the first time a current pope has attended a COP conference.

Although the final list of speakers will be confirmed closer to the event, critical absences noted include US President Joe Biden and China’s leader Xi Jinping. However, both have recently expressed a commitment to increased renewable energy uptake.

Representatives from significant oil nations, including Saudi Arabia and Russia, will be in attendance, along with leaders from conflict-affected areas such as Israel and the Palestinian territories.

From the corporate sector, influential figures from the fossil fuel industry and finance, including BlackRock CEO Larry Fink, are anticipated to reveal plans for embracing cleaner energy solutions. Their commitments are mainly watched in the light of past absences, such as last year’s summit in Egypt.

COP28’s Global Review of Climate Targets

  • Le global stocktake reveals a crucial gap between current efforts and the objectives outlined in the Paris Agreement.
  • Eight years have elapsed, emissions have not decreased significantly, and the opportunity for impactful reduction is becoming increasingly scarce.
  • COP28 marks a pivotal juncture as nations come face-to-face with analyses measuring the disparity between their stated climate ambitions and actual progress.
  • Melanie Robinson from the World Resources Institute provides insight, indicating that while nations are veering away from established climate targets, a thorough and robust plan to rectify this trajectory is at their disposal.
  • Le UN Framework Convention on Climate Change underpins the significance of this event, as it could serve as a critical moment of realisation and a potential turning point toward greater accountability and action.
  • The path forward entails reinforcing transparency, accelerating the pursuit of net-zero commitments, and focusing on the science-led directives indicated by reports such as those from the IPCC.
  • Efforts must also concentrate on global adaptation strategies and establishing a loss and damage fund to address the immediate consequences of climate change.

COP28’s Critical Topics

At the heart of discussions in Dubai, perennial issues such as establishing a loss and damage fund and the crucial transition from fossil fuels persist as dominant themes. Delegates from around the globe will delve into the nuances of transitioning towards clean energy solutions and addressing the financial aspects of climate adaptation.

The dialogue continues whether to completely phase out or gradually phase down the consumption of oil and gas, a contention not yet resolved since COP27. Notably, influential nations like China and some oil-producing countries are inclined towards a phase-down, especially considering their significant greenhouse gas emissions depuis coal.

The spotlight will also be on the operational details of the loss and damage compensation fund, designed to direct funds from higher-income nations, historically significant contributors to emissions, to more vulnerable nations facing severe climate impacts such as prolonged drought and rising sea levels.

Efforts are accelerating to activate the fund by 2024, with a provisional arrangement recommended for the World Bank to host and manage the fund for an interim four years. This aspect represents a contentious and sophisticated debate that could significantly influence the outcomes of COP28.

Emphasised is the swift global shift away from dependency on fossil fuels to endorse robust international climate action. On the agenda is also enhancing methane emissions reduction and promoting carbon capture and storage technologies. The expansion of renewable energy adoption globally, alongside the energy transition de la private sector, remains a priority, seeking unity with nations’ green credentials.

Climate financeresilience, and the balance between nature conservation and human development are also to be addressed, gauging how the collective efforts can mitigate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions while enhancing nature’s role in a sustainable future.

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