Arabic Pita Bread – Perfecting the Staple Middle Eastern Flatbread

Pita bread, often referred to as Arabic bread or Lebanese flatbread, is a staple in many Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines. Originating from the region, this versatile yeast-leavened flatbread has found a place in kitchens around the world, where it’s used for a multitude of culinary creations.

You might be familiar with pita bread as a primary component in dishes like falafel wraps or shawarma sandwiches. 

However, its applications extend much further, from serving as the base for various toppings or dips such as hummus and baba ganoush, to being used in soups and meat pies. The process of making pita bread at home is quite simple, requiring only a few ingredients you may already have in your pantry, and can be made either on the stovetop or baked in the oven.

As you explore the art of making Arabic pita bread, you will not only add a new skill to your cooking repertoire but also enjoy fresh, homemade bread that complements a wide variety of dishes.

History of Arabic Pita Bread

The origins of Arabic pita bread can be traced back to the prehistoric flatbreads in the Near East, around 14,500 years ago. At that time, the Natufian people, residing in what is now Jordan, made a kind of flatbread using wild cereal grains. Pita bread, also known as Arabic bread, Syrian bread, or pocket bread, is a staple in many Middle Eastern and North African cuisines.

As the bread gained popularity in communities situated west of the Mediterranean Sea, it soon spread across the region. This versatile bread was enjoyed by both farmers and desert dwellers, as well as traders travelling across the Arabian and Sahara deserts. 

The versatility is due to its simple ingredients, typically made from wheat and leavened with yeast or sourdough, giving it a unique flavour and texture.

In the Levant and Egypt, the well-known “pocket” pita bread became a staple, while the flat tannur bread was more popular in Iraq. The pocket-style pita is slightly different from the Greek version, but both have similar characteristics and ingredients.

Today, pita bread continues to be an essential part of many Middle Eastern and North African dishes, demonstrating the enduring culinary influence of this ancient and versatile flatbread.

Ingredients of Arabic Pita Bread

In this section, you will find the essential ingredients needed to make authentic Arabic pita bread. We will keep things simple and to the point, ensuring that your pita bread turns out perfect every time.

  • Water: You will need approximately 1 cup of warm water to activate the yeast. Ensure that the water is lukewarm, as too hot or too cold water can affect the yeast’s activity.
  • Yeast: 2 teaspoons of active dry yeast are essential to provide the necessary rise to your pita bread. Make sure your yeast is fresh and not expired for the best results.
  • Sugar: A small quantity of sugar, about 1 teaspoon, is needed to feed the yeast and enhance fermentation. Granulated sugar works best for this purpose.
  • Flour: Use around 3 cups of all-purpose flour to form the base of your pita bread dough. It’s essential to sift the flour before use to ensure a smooth and even texture of the dough.
  • Olive oil: Adding some extra-virgin olive oil (1 tablespoon) to the dough will help enhance the overall flavour and texture of your Arabic pita bread.
  • Salt: Finally, incorporate 1.5 teaspoons of kosher salt into your dough to enhance the taste, and balance the other ingredients.

Now that you have gathered your ingredients, you’re ready to begin the process of making the perfect Arabic pita bread. Combine the warm water, yeast, and sugar, and allow the mixture to sit for 10 minutes. 

Sift the flour into a bowl, add the salt, and mix before adding the yeast mixture. Knead your dough until you achieve a malleable and consistent texture. Following this, you can proceed with cooking your pita bread as desired, ensuring that you impress your friends and family with your newfound culinary skills!

Making Arabic Pita Bread

Preparation Process

To make Arabic pita bread, start by dissolving 1 tablespoon of active dry yeast and 1 1/2 teaspoons of granulated sugar in 1/4 cup of lukewarm water. Allow the mixture to sit for 5-8 minutes, or until it becomes frothy. 

In a large bowl, combine the flour with the dissolved yeast, and slowly add the remaining water while mixing. Once you have mixed the dough well, set it aside for 20 minutes.

While waiting, preheat your oven to a high temperature, ideal for baking pita bread. It is worth noting that traditional Middle Eastern pita bread is often baked in brick ovens where very high heat can be achieved.

Baking Process

After your dough has rested, divide it into equal portions and roll them into balls. On a lightly floured surface, roll out each ball into a thin, circular shape, approximately 15-20 cm in diameter. Place the rolled-out dough onto a parchment-lined baking sheet.

Bake the pita bread in the preheated oven for a few minutes until they puff up and achieve a light golden colour. Be cautious, as the baking process is quick and overbaking can result in a hard texture.

Remove the puffed-up pita bread from the oven and allow them to cool on a wire rack. As they cool, the bread will naturally form pockets, making them perfect for stuffing with your favourite fillings, such as falafel, hummus, or other delicious Arabic dishes

Enjoy your homemade Arabic pita bread with your favourite dips or as part of a traditional Middle Eastern meal.

Varieties of Arabic Pita Bread

Arabic pita bread, also known as pitta bread in British English, is a family of yeast-leavened round flatbreads baked from wheat flour. 

It is common in the Mediterranean, Levant, and neighbouring areas. With origins dating back 14,500 years in North-eastern Jordan, this versatile bread has evolved, resulting in several varieties enjoyed today.

Traditional Pocket Pita: 

This well-known type of pita bread features an interior pocket, making it perfect for stuffing with various ingredients like falafel, vegetables, or meats. It is often referred to as Arabic or Greek bread and is used in dishes such as gyros, shawarma, and kebabs.

Taboon Bread: 

Taboon bread, named after the special oven it is cooked in, is thicker and chewier than pocket pita bread. It is traditionally eaten with popular Middle Eastern dishes like hummus or used as a versatile wrap for numerous fillings.


A popular Levantine flatbread, Manakish often features various toppings like za’atar (a mixture of dried thyme, sesame seeds, and sumac), cheese, or minced meat. Manakish is enjoyed across the Middle East as a breakfast item or snack.


A thin, soft flatbread found in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, Lavash can be eaten fresh or dried into a cracker-like texture. Similar to pita bread, Lavash is often used to scoop dips or wrap ingredients, making it a staple in meals and mezze platters.

Saj Bread: 

This thin, slightly translucent pita bread is cooked on a domed griddle called a saj, resulting in distinctive grill marks. Its elasticity makes it an ideal choice for wrapping a variety of fillings like vegetables, cheeses, and meats.

It is important to appreciate the diverse ways pita bread is prepared and enjoyed across different cultures. The variety of Arabic pita bread not only attests to the bread’s rich history but also adds to the unique flavours and textures that elevate Middle Eastern cuisine.

Nutritional Value of Arabic Pita Bread

Arabic pita bread is a popular staple in Middle Eastern cuisine, and its nutritional value makes it a versatile and healthy option for various meals. When considering the nutritional content of Arabic pita bread, it is important to evaluate its calorie count, carbohydrates, protein, and fat content.

For a 100-gram serving of Arabic pita bread, you can expect approximately 248 kcal of calories. 

This portion size contains 48g of carbohydrates, which provide your body with the necessary energy for various tasks. As a bread product, pita bread’s carbohydrate count may vary slightly depending on the specific recipe, but the general range is around 17 grams per serving.

In terms of protein, a 100-gram serving of Arabic pita bread contains 8g, helping in muscle development and tissue repair. With such a moderate protein content, pita bread complements other protein-rich foods in your diet, such as legumes or lean meats.

When looking at the fat content in Arabic pita bread, it’s noteworthy that it has a relatively low amount – around 1g per 100-gram serving. This modest fat content can be a good alternative to other bread options with higher fat content.

Sodium levels in pita bread might be a concern for some people. A medium-sized pita (around 5-1/4″ dia) contains 241 mg of sodium, which makes up about 10% of the Daily Values (%DV). It’s crucial to balance the intake of sodium with other low-sodium foods in your meal plan.

Finally, pita bread also contains a small amount of dietary fibre, about 1 gram in a medium-sized pita. Dietary fibre is essential for maintaining a healthy digestive system and regulating blood sugar levels.

In summary, Arabic pita bread provides you with essential nutrients and energy. Its relatively low-fat content and moderate protein levels make it an excellent option for incorporating into diverse meals, but keep an eye on the sodium content and balance it in your overall diet.

Storing and Preserving Arabic Pita Bread

Storing pita bread properly can help you maintain its freshness and taste for a longer time. Here are some tips on how to store and preserve Arabic pita bread to keep it delicious and fluffy.

Firstly, when storing pita bread, consider using zip-seal plastic bags. This will allow you to maintain the right level of moisture and keep the bread from drying out. 

After placing the pita bread into the zip-seal bag, wrap it in aluminium foil and store it in the refrigerator. Storing it in the fridge will help preserve the bread’s flavour and texture.

For longer-term storage, you can also store pita bread in the freezer. Before freezing, wrap each piece of pita bread with plastic film to prevent freezer burn. 

Then, place the wrapped pitas inside a freezer bag or an airtight container that fits comfortably in your freezer. Allow the pitas to defrost at room temperature or in the refrigerator before using them.

If your pita bread has dried out and lost its softness, don’t worry – you can still revive it. Place a moist towel over the dried pita bread, making sure it’s completely covered. Then, heat the wrapped pita briefly in the oven or microwave to bring it back to life.

Lastly, if you’re working with pita dough rather than ready-made bread, storing the dough is also an option. Shape the dough into pita-sized portions, then wrap each portion with plastic film. Place the wrapped dough in a freezer bag or an airtight container and store it in the freezer.

By following these simple tips, you’ll be able to store and preserve your Arabic pita bread, ensuring you always have a delicious base for your favourite dishes.

Serving Suggestions for Arabic Pita Bread

Arabic pita bread is a versatile and delicious addition to your meals. Here are some serving suggestions to help you enjoy your pita bread in various ways.

Firstly, you can simply warm up your pita bread in the oven or on a griddle and serve it with a side of hummus or other traditional Middle Eastern dips. 

Tahini, baba ghanoush, and tzatziki are excellent choices to pair with your warm and fluffy pita. If you’re in the mood for a more substantial meal, stuff your pita pocket with falafel, grilled vegetables, or your favourite meat and salad fillings.

Alternatively, try making Arayes – a popular Lebanese dish featuring pita bread stuffed with seasoned ground meat, which is then grilled to perfection. This can be served alone or with a refreshing side salad.

Another great option for incorporating Arabic pita bread into your meal is to create pita pizzas. Simply spread tomato sauce or your favourite spread on the pita bread, add toppings like cheese, vegetables, and meats, and bake in the oven until everything is cooked and the cheese has melted.

Lastly, you can transform your pita bread into a crunchy snack by cutting it into wedges and toasting them in the oven. These pita chips can be served alongside dips, or used as a base for Middle Eastern-inspired nachos loaded with chickpeas, feta cheese, juicy tomatoes, and olives.

Regardless of the serving option you choose, always remember to dress it up with herbs and spices like zaatar or sumac for an authentic flavour. Enjoy your Arabic pita bread and explore various tasty combinations to find your ultimate favourite.

Arabic Pita Bread – Conclusion

In your exploration of Arabic pita bread, you have learned about its significant role in the cuisine of Lebanon and the Middle East. Pita bread, also known as khubz or baladi, is a yeast-leavened round flatbread baked from wheat flour, commonly found in the Mediterranean and Levantine regions.

As you continue to delve into the versatility of Arabic pita bread, you’ll find its widespread use in various dishes, including as the perfect accompaniment to many Levantine meals. 

You’ll discover that its unique pocket design makes it the ideal choice for stuffing with a variety of fillings or for scooping up delicious dips, stews, and salads.

You can also expand your culinary skills by trying out khobz arabi recipes at home, enabling you to enjoy the authentic flavours of this tasty and traditional bread. Consider making a batch in bulk to store in your freezer, ensuring a fresh supply of this delightful bread whenever you crave it.

In summary, by understanding the history, cultural significance, and culinary applications of Arabic pita bread, you can appreciate the uniqueness of this versatile bread and incorporate it into your dishes, elevating your meals and broadening your culinary horizons.


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