Arabic Biscuits

Arabic Biscuits – A Comprehensive Guide on Traditional Middle Eastern Treats

Arabic biscuits, also known as Middle Eastern cookies, encompass a broad and diverse range of flavours and techniques to delight your taste buds. 

As you dive into the world of these delectable treats, you will discover a fascinating history and rich cultural influence that shines through in both their preparation and presentation.

Two popular examples of Arabic biscuits are Ghraybeh and Maamoul. Ghraybeh, a Middle Eastern shortbread cookie, is incredibly easy to make and consists of just a few key ingredients: butter or ghee, flour, powdered sugar, and pistachios. 

On the other hand, Maamoul is a butter cookie traditionally filled with dates, though other fillings like pistachios or walnuts are also popular. 

These mouth-watering cookies are particularly well-loved in the Arabian Peninsula as well as countries such as Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine.

As you explore the enticing realm of Arabic biscuits, you will not only satisfy your sweet tooth but also gain a deeper appreciation for the rich culinary traditions of the Middle East. Be open and allow your senses to be captivated by each unique and delectable treat you encounter.

Origins of Arabic Biscuits

The history of Arabic biscuits can be traced back to ancient Egypt, where the earliest evidence suggests that biscuits were made using a simple mixture of flour and water. 

Over time, as experimentation with various ingredients began, cooks transformed the ordinary biscuit into a richer, sweeter treat by enriching the flour paste with ingredients such as eggs, butter, cream, fruits, honey, and sugar.

One of the most popular Arabic biscuits is Kahk, which originated in Egypt and is traditionally eaten across the Arab world to celebrate Eid al-Fitr. Kahk is a small circular biscuit, covered with powdered sugar, and sometimes stuffed with a mixture called ʿagameyya. 

This festive biscuit has been enjoyed by many for centuries and continues to hold a special place in Arabic culture.

In the medieval era, Muslims were the first people to add sugar to the dough for twice-baked bread, effectively transitioning biscuits from plain, staple food to a luxurious health food. This innovative technique quickly gained popularity, leading to the creation of various new biscuit varieties, such as the fig roll, which was invented as a health food.

Further evolution of Arabic biscuits took place in Andalusia and Murcia, where new versions developed under the names of alajú or alfajor. 

These biscuits derived their name from the Arabic word al-fakher (meaning “luxurious”) or the old Arabic word for biscuit. These biscuits showcase the rich culinary heritage and creativity of Arabic cuisine.

Throughout history, Arabic biscuits have played a significant role in the region’s gastronomy, evolving from simple flour-based preparations to diverse and delicious creations. 

Today, you can enjoy a wide range of Arabic biscuits, each with its unique flavours and textures, inspired by centuries of innovation and cultural exchange.

Popular Types of Arabic Biscuits

In this section, we will explore some of the most popular and beloved Arabic biscuits. These delicious treats are loved throughout the Arab world and beyond, perfect for enjoying with a cup of tea or coffee. 

We will focus on Maamoul, Ghraybeh, and Baklava.


Maamoul are traditional Arabic biscuits known for their unique flavour and texture. They are typically filled with dates, pistachios, or walnuts and are moulded into intricate shapes using special maamoul moulds. 

A shortbread-like dough made from flour, sugar, butter, and a hint of rosewater or orange blossom water gives these biscuits their tender and crumbly texture. Maamoul are often enjoyed during festive occasions, such as Eid al-Fitr and Easter.


Ghraybeh is a delicate and buttery Arabic biscuit that melts in your mouth. Made from a simple mixture of flour, powdered sugar, and ghee or clarified butter, these biscuits are often flavoured with orange blossom or rosewater and sometimes topped with a single blanched almond or pistachio. 

Ghraybeh is typically shaped into small round balls or crescent shapes before being baked until just golden. These biscuits have a subtle, sweet flavour and make for a perfect accompaniment to a cup of Arabic coffee or tea.


Though not strictly a biscuit, Baklava is a deliciously sweet Arabic dessert that is often included alongside other biscuit offerings. Baklava is made from layers of thin, flaky pastry known as phyllo dough, filled with a blend of chopped nuts (typically walnuts, pistachios, or almonds) and sweetened with sugar or honey. 

The layers are then baked and soaked in a fragrant sugar syrup infused with spices such as cinnamon and cloves, or flavoured with rosewater or orange blossom water. Baklava is best enjoyed in small bites, allowing you to savour the rich flavours and contrasting textures.

Cultural Importance

Arabic biscuits hold significant cultural importance in the Middle East. These biscuits play a vital role in various religious and celebratory events. Maamoul is a popular Arabic biscuit enjoyed by both Christians and Muslims during festive occasions. 

For Christians, it symbolises the sweet reward of waiting after the fasting period of Lent. Likewise, Muslims relish Maamoul after a month of fasting during Ramadan.

The main ingredients in Maamoul are semolina and ghee, with flavours derived from mahlab (crushed cherry seeds) and mastic. These biscuits can be filled with an assortment of fillings such as date paste, chopped walnuts, or pistachios.

Another traditional biscuit, Kahk or Kahk el-Eid, is often prepared across the Arab world to celebrate Eid al-Fitr, the festival that marks the end of Ramadan. 

Kahk is a small, circular biscuit that is covered with powdered sugar and typically filled with ‘agameyya (a mixture of honey, nuts, and ghee), lokum, walnuts, pistachios, or dates.

Interestingly, the history of Arab food can be traced back to the ancient civilisations of the Middle East. The Sumerians, Babylonians, Phoenicians or Canaanites, Hittites, Arameans, Assyrians, Egyptians, and Nabateans have each contributed to the formation of today’s Arab kitchen. 

Thus, it is evident that these biscuits have a substantial cultural significance and serve as a symbol of unity, goodwill, and hospitality in the Arab world.

Remember that when you enjoy these delectable biscuits, you are not only indulging in their delightful flavours but also partaking in a rich cultural tradition that has been celebrated for centuries.

Ingredients in Arabic Biscuits

Arabic biscuits are known for their delightful taste and texture, often enjoyed during special occasions. There are various types of Arabic biscuits, but some common ingredients used to make these delectable treats include:

  • Flour: Typically, all-purpose flour is used as the base ingredient to form the structure of the biscuits.
  • Butter or ghee: Butter provides a rich, tender texture, whilst ghee imparts a distinct, rich flavour to the biscuits. Clarified butter can also be used in some recipes, such as Ghiraybah.
  • Powdered sugar: This is used to sweeten the biscuits and can also contribute to their tender texture. It’s important to sift the powdered sugar to avoid any lumps.
  • Milk or water: These are occasionally used to combine the ingredients, but some recipes may only require butter or ghee to form the dough.
  • Baking powder: This is added to the dough to help the biscuits rise and become slightly airy.
  • Spices and flavourings: Cinnamon, cardamom or vanilla are popular choices to complement the unique taste of Arabic biscuits.

There are also specific ingredients unique to some Arabic biscuit types, such as:

  • Dates: Used as a filling in Maamoul biscuits, which are especially popular during festive occasions like Eid.
  • Pistachios: These can be used as a topping or a filling for Ghraybeh to provide additional flavour and texture.
  • Yeast: Some recipes, like Maamoul, may use yeast to add a slight leavening to the dough.

In summary, Arabic biscuits are often made with simple everyday ingredients but can include special elements that give the biscuits their unique flavours and textures. It’s essential to carefully select high-quality ingredients, as they will have a significant impact on the final result. 

The secret to making perfect Arabic biscuits lies in the technique used to mix and shape the dough, which varies from one type of biscuit to another.

Cooking Techniques of Arabic Biscuits

When preparing Arabic biscuits, there are specific techniques you can follow to ensure the authentic taste and texture of your treats. In this section, we will discuss the fundamental steps and methods commonly used to create these delicious biscuits.

To begin, it’s essential to use the appropriate ingredients, often found in Arabic biscuits. Typical ingredients include butter or ghee, powdered sugar, and flour. For additional flavours or textures, you might incorporate rose water, sesame seeds, dates, pistachios, or walnuts.

Firstly, cream together your butter (or ghee) and powdered sugar using a hand or stand mixer. This will create a smooth and creamy base for your biscuits. If using rose water for flavour, you can mix it in during this step as well. Once the butter mixture is ready, gently add the flour to form the dough. It’s essential to avoid overmixing the dough, as this can lead to tough biscuits.

Next, allow the dough to rest in the refrigerator for about an hour. Chilling the dough helps solidify the butter, which allows for smoother rolling and shaping later on.

Once the dough is sufficiently chilled, it’s time to shape your Arabic biscuits. Depending on the type of biscuit, you can either roll the dough into small balls or use cookie cutters to form specific shapes. 

For example, maamoul is traditionally shaped as a round cookie with an indent in the centre, while baksam is formed as a flat, round biscuit topped with sesame seeds.

When forming the biscuits, make sure to work with small portions of dough at a time, keeping the rest in the refrigerator. It’s crucial to prevent the dough from becoming too warm or soft, as this can affect its texture after baking.

Lastly, bake your Arabic biscuits at a temperature of around 325°F (160°C) for approximately 10-15 minutes. The cookies should be slightly golden but still tender, as the aim is for a delicate, melt-in-your-mouth texture.

By following these fundamental cooking techniques, you’ll be well on your way to creating delicious and authentic Arabic biscuits that you and your loved ones can enjoy.

Serving Suggestions for Arabic Biscuits

Arabic biscuits come in a variety of flavours and shapes, making them perfect for serving on different occasions. Here are some serving suggestions for these tasty treats:

  • Tea Time: Arabic biscuits, such as Ghraybeh (Middle Eastern shortbread cookies), pair wonderfully with a cup of tea or Moroccan mint tea. Serve them alongside your favourite hot beverage to elevate your afternoon tea experience.
  • Special Occasions: Baksam, or sesame seed cookies, are often served at weddings, baptisms, or other special events. Arrange these delicious biscuits on decorative platters and place them around the room for guests to enjoy.
  • Dessert Table: Include a selection of Arabic biscuits like Lebanese Maamoul cookies on your dessert table. These cookies are typically filled with dates or nuts, adding a touch of sweetness to your spread. You can also offer a variety of dipping sauces, such as chocolate or caramel, to complement the biscuits further.
  • Gift Giving: Arabic biscuits make thoughtful and delicious gifts for your loved ones during the festive season or special celebrations. Package an assortment of these treats in a beautifully decorated box or container, and don’t forget to include a personalised note.

Remember to store your Arabic biscuits in an airtight container to maintain their freshness and delicious taste. Enjoy the delightful flavours of these Middle Eastern treats at your next gathering or as a delightful snack any time of the day.

Variations from Other Cultures

As you explore the world of Arabic biscuits, you’ll find several variations influenced by other cultures, with each bringing its unique taste and presentation. Here are a few examples:

In Iraq, you can find Kleicha, a national cookie resembling a pinwheel. The flaky dough of Kleicha is similar to puff pastry and typically filled with a spiced walnut-date spread.

Heading to the Middle East, you will come across Ghraybeh, a type of shortbread cookie. They are made by mixing ghee or butter with powdered sugar, followed by adding flour to create a soft dough. These cookies are often adorned with a pistachio or almond on top before baking.

In Lebanon, the Ka’ak is a popular type of biscuit, which is usually dry, hardened, and ring-shaped. The texture of this bread makes it perfect for dipping into various spreads or consuming hot beverages like tea and coffee.

Exploring Iranian flavours, Ghotab is a cookie filled with a mixture of cardamom, cinnamon, and sugar that infuse the treat with a delightful aroma. Ghotab showcases the delicate balance of spices typically found in Persian-influenced Arabic treats.

Some key features of Arabic biscuits from various cultures include:

  • Unique textures, ranging from soft and crumbly to dry and hard
  • Use of spices such as cardamom, cinnamon, and cloves for added flavours
  • Incorporation of nuts, seeds, and dried fruits for extra richness and taste

By sampling Arabic biscuits from different regions, you can appreciate the diversity in flavour profiles and preparation methods, giving you a taste of the culinary heritage spanning across various countries within this vast cultural area.

Arabic Biscuits in Modern-Day

Arabic biscuits have come a long way, and today, you can find various types and flavours to suit your taste buds. One popular Arabic biscuit is Ghraybeh, a Middle Eastern shortbread cookie. Its ingredients include butter or ghee, flour, powdered sugar, and pistachios. 

These melt-in-your-mouth cookies are simple to make and become an instant favourite once you try them.

Another popular treat during festivities, especially Eid, is the Maamoul biscuit. These are delightful pastries filled with sweet fillings such as dates, nuts, or even chocolate. 

A key feature of Maamoul biscuits is the light dusting of icing sugar that adds an elegant touch to these delicious bites. Both Christians and Muslims enjoy Maamoul biscuits as part of their celebrations.

In recent years, you can find a fusion of traditional Arabic biscuits with modern flavours and presentation. 

For example, you might come across Maamoul biscuits with creative fillings like Nutella or lotus spread, catering to the contemporary palate.

Here are some popular Arabic biscuits:

  • Ghraybeh: Middle Eastern shortbread cookies made with butter or ghee, flour, powdered sugar, and pistachios.
  • Maamoul: Sweet pastries filled with dates, nuts, or chocolate, often enjoyed during festive occasions.
  • Ghiraybah: Arabian Gulf shortbread cookies that are creamy and light with a walnut-sized dough.

Arabic Biscuits – Wrapping Up

In conclusion, Arabic biscuits have adapted and evolved, incorporating a blend of traditional and modern flavours. Today, you can enjoy these delightful treats in various forms, making them an integral part of modern culinary culture.

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